An article in the Journal of Anthropological Sciences, reported on in the UK Guardian, argues that Neanderthals may have gone extinct because they were eaten by modern humans.
The hypothesis is based on discovery of a Neanderthal jawbone that appears to have been cut in the same way as the bones of deer that were consumed by early humans.
"Neanderthals met a violent end at our hands and in some cases we ate them…for years, people have tried to hide away from the evidence of cannibalism, but I think we have to accept it took place," said the (maybe overenthusiastic?) Fernardo Rozzi of Paris's Centre National de la Récherche Scientifique.
The discovery will certainly be met with much opposition from scientists with other (less-violent, but less interesting) theories—ie, Neanderthals were more susceptible to climate change, or couldn’t compete for food as effectively as humans.
mmm, cheddar men.